Where to find Trove always updates?
No worries, there is no such thing as a stupid question!
You can find various announcements, news, and times for events (such as streams) in the Trove News and Announcements Forums. (Particularly the "News and Announcements" and "Patch Notes" sections.)
Unfortunately, the majority of announcements are fairly short notice. You can usually find out about streams and other events a day or so in advance though, as well as important news regarding the game and patch notes outlining what has been added/changed when a new update/patch is released.
All patches take place on Tuesdays, and the Developer streams where they answer questions, show sneak-peaks on upcoming content, and have giveaways, tend to take place every Friday at 12:20 PM PDT.
Aside from that, you can also usually find Stream Highlights posted within 1-2 days of the Friday stream on the General Discussion forums (essentially an outline of what was talked about - be sure to thank the author of said highlights if you read through them!) as well as Patch Notes Discussions (where you can see the patch notes and discuss/read about them further.)
Everyone else answered the rest of your questions regarding when the upcoming challenge changes/lunar lancer/shadow towers are being added (Tuesday, September 15th), so hopefully this additional information and link are of some use as well!
Trove experience Rant with Needed Suggestion
I guess this is the internet and children will do what they please with their faces hidden behind a screen, but I just felt like ranting in case anyone else felt the same sometime in their Trove experience and I'm letting them know that they are not alone.
Trove Devs: Please sort the consecutive days stats
Sorry to moan. I love trove, it's an amazing game and you have done a fantastic job of taking it from the simple alpha beginning to the game it is today.
Arcane/Martial vs Surestrike
One of the hardest comparisons I have seen so far has to be between Surestrike and Arcane/Martial. While one might think, it is easy to pick the better of the two it is not so cut and dry.
r4pg:Trove Fish 'N' Ships Update Sails into Port
With Fishing, Ships , Pirates, and the Treasure Isles , Fish 'N' Ships is sure to have something that floats your boat! To get started, hit the hub and head to the new ship house to get your first ship and fishing pole!
Too many time walls in Trove?
There's no other way to obtain boosters outside of getting them from daily chests, boosters from market or with credits.
Fishing is a gameplay mechanic that allows players to farm materials through means of fishing in different liquid blocks and locations. Players can curently fish in water, lava and chocolate. Plasma fishing will be added in a future patch.